Sunday, May 24, 2020

International Adoption Is A Growing Trend - 2004 Words

Imagine being a child living in a third world country and only being fed two meals a day that barely provide the nutrients needed to help one grow, along with receiving very little affection. Some people argue that international adoption, provides a key role in improving a child s life. Although others believe international adoption creates many complications and should not be an option. Therefore, many believe adopting a child from an outside country or culture can be quite rewarding for both the parents and the child; however, international adoption deals with many concerns as well as serious challenges. International adoption is a growing trend around the world. It is an alternate way to create or expand a family; it is a lifetime decision and should be made very cautiously. After World War II (1939-1945) international adoption started to become popular in the United States. Americans started to adopt children who were either abandoned or had been orphaned during the war. Although the trend started to accelerate after the Korean War (1950-1953), when the South Korean government established an adoption program (â€Å"International Adoption†). Adoption programs tend to thrive after a war or a natural disaster has taken place. Many children that are abandoned or had been orphaned are either left behind to die or are brought to institutions. Hundreds of children live in institutions, although about 200,000 South Korean children are estimated to have been adopted by families inShow MoreRelatedInternational Adoption Crisis Should Not Be A Viable Adoption1257 Words   |  6 Pages International Adoption Crisis The image of an American family has changed dramatically over the last fifty years. American families are no longer modeled after the Cleavers. International adoption has contributed to this changing family view, bringing in children who are not biologically related to their parents and often of a different race. This new American image has helped eliminate race related issues. So, what is the controversy with international adoption? Children are the future of a country;Read MoreInternational Adoption Should Not Be A Viable Adoption Source1233 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Cleavers. International adoption has contributed to this changing family view, bringing in children who are not biologically related to their parents and often of a different race. This new American image has helped to reduce race related issues. Children are the future of a country. If a country is losing their children to international adoption; the county is losing the gifts and talents that are irreplaceable in th ose children. Intercountry adoption should not be a viable adoption source becauseRead MoreAccounting Structure Of Ireland : An Introduction1643 Words   |  7 Pages Hence, the twin assignments that were to characterize the middle period, book-keeping audit, and tax compliance bloomed. In the 1970s Information technology, foreign direct investment and a growingly complex tax code offered new prospects in a growing Irish economy. The Accountants started to offer a broader variety of services and expertise to their companies and the customers. The Irish accountancy firms hired external experts and supported active younger partners, throwing off the conventionalRead MoreEssay about Domestic vs International Adoption1405 Words   |  6 PagesIn todays society, the idea of adoption is an open and welcome one. However, the biggest decision in adoption today is whether to adopt domestically or internationally. There is a very large growing trend in international adoptions today. Compared to adoption rates in 1987, in 2004 international adoptions had risen over 200% as compared to an 8% rise in domestic adoptions. After World War II, international adoptions began to rise because Americans began adopting European and Japanese war orphansRead MoreIndustry Prospects And Attractiveness : Amazon Prime Service Gaining Subscribers1636 Words   |  7 Pagesaccording to various reports, the chance of Prime customers willing to buy is almost twice as much as the regular customers. Prime subscribers will continue to grow as Amazon is investing heavily in streaming content to draw in more subscribers. Today trend has to be the Amazon PrimeNow. Retailers always have an online focus in order to maximize profit with the advantages of mobile technologies. Big online retailers like Amazon on the other hand are seeing the advantages of local pickup. The evolvingRead MoreHealthcare Becoming More Predictive Than Reactive, Healthcare Essay1179 Words   |  5 Pagesup positions in the hospital. This report discusses two prominent trends emerging in the medical industry that could have considerable impacts on the Thomson group and its patients— consumers’ increased individual responsibility towards their health, and the rise in adoption of telehealth technologies. Consumers today are becoming more pro-active are assuming greater responsibility for the management of their own health. This trend is evident in the rise of â€Å"quantified self-tracking† – the regularRead MoreIntroduction Of Bim Into Nz s Construction Industry1546 Words   |  7 Pagespractical guidance to ensure the relevance of standard forms of contract are maintained and recommends the selection of suitable project delivery models. 2 3 4 5 6 7 â€Æ' Contents Executive Summery 1 Introduction 3 BIM adoption and implementation in NZ 4 Comparison of NZ BIM adoption to other countries 8 Conclusions for the future of BIM in NZ construction industry 11 References 12 Introduction The introduction of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and tools into the constructionRead MoreIfrs Of The Us And The World : Political And Economic Forces Shape Accounting1542 Words   |  7 Pagesfinancial reporting standards. The integration is driven by the reductions in the costs of information processing and communication. International Financial Reporting Standards are a common business affair language in the globe for easier comprehension and comparison of company accounts across international boundaries (AICPA). The standards are issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. The IASB is a United Kingdom body that was established in 2001 and is based in London. The historicalRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Framing Csr Within A System Of Global Ethics1470 Words   |  6 Pagesarguably how the role of international corporations will fit into the process of addressing many of the planet’s most pressing issues over the coming generations. The globa lization trend has led to the ability for international corporations to influence the international relations of nations on a scale never before imagined. For example, if Walmart were a country it would rank 28th in the world in GDP compared to other nations. Furthermore, Walmart isn’t alone in its international influence and thereRead MoreEssay on Designer Apparel Market in Australia1193 Words   |  5 PagesIn 2008 the market size in millions was approximately $1,673.0 as compared to 2013, where it increased up to $2,063.2 as shown in the graph. By 2018, the market is expected to reach up to $2,411.1 million. (Euromonitor International, 2014a) According to Euromonitor International (2014a), the brand leaders in regards to brand shares (2012) are: †¢ Ralph Lauren in number one position with 7.5% of brand shares †¢ Then Berlei (Company: Pacific Brands Ltd) with 5.2% †¢ Donna Karan (Company: Moet Hennessy

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Alternative Gender Roles Among Various Cultures - 850 Words

Alternative Gender Roles In this paper, I will discuss the Alternative Gender Roles among various cultures. I will discuss how the gender role between men and women are both different with each culture group. I will reflect how important the men role play within the family and how the women role is just the opposite. Even though, men role is what keeps the family functioning and together. In today s society women and men both have important roles when providing for the family. Both gender roles are so important to the family to keep a close bond. The men role is to provide for the family, hunt for food and protect the family. The women role is to take care of the children, clean the house and prepare the meals. â€Å"In spite of differences in how gender roles may be structured, there is a pattern to differences in roles that are commonly assigned to women and men† (Crapo, 2013). A cross-cultural study by Murdock and Provost (1973) revealed that throughout the world, males ar e almost always responsible for hunting large land and sea animals and game birds, and for trapping smaller animals† (Crapo, 2013). They are usually expected to fish, to herd large animals, to collect wild honey, and to clear the land and prepare it for planting. â€Å"Women are usually involved in gathering wild plant foods. Other food production activities, such as collecting shellfish; caring for small animals; milking animals; and planting, tending, and harvesting crops, are not consistentlyShow MoreRelatedFactors Influencing The Buying Decision Process1269 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is the role of emotions in the Buying Decision Process. What are the other major influences on consumer behavior? Describe them. Ch. 6, Session #3 Handout There are 3 types of factors influencing on consumer behavior: cultural factors, social factors, and personal factors. 1) Cultural factors consists a consumer’s culture, subculture and social class. These factors are usually innate in our values and decision activities. Sub-cultures are a society is included of several cultures which peopleRead MoreGender Roles And Attitudes Of A Teacher s Practice1189 Words   |  5 PagesThe present essay attempts to demonstrate the stereotypes around gender and and it’s relation to a teacher’s practice. In order for this objective to be met, the theory of gender will be introduced, followed by the stereotypes regarding the gender ‘’roles’’. Moreover the role of culture in the creation of gender roles and how popular culture-media carry stereotypes on children will be presented. This aims to show how a teacher can combat or prevent those stereotypes through her thoughtful, carefulRead MoreChapter 3 Managing in a Global Environment Essay1358 Words   |  6 PagesDomestic, International, Multinational, and Global * Two major alternatives for engaging in the international arena are to seek cheaper resources via outsourcing and to develop markets outside the home country * Global outsourcing- Sometime called offshoring, mean engaging in the international division of labor so as to obtain the cheapest sources of labor and supplies, regardless of country * Market entry strategies- are various tactics managers use to enter foreign markets * Exporting-Read MoreThe Effects Of Media On Gay Male Body Image1209 Words   |  5 Pagesof Media on Gay Male Body Image. Clinical Social Work Journal, 44(1), 105-113. The existing studies have indicated the gay male adults are more likely to develop body image dissatisfaction than other male populations due to variety of social and culture elements—particularly in media. Lanzieri and Hildebrand argued that gay media sources had produced the ideal male physique that negatively impact on its audiences. They had conducted a research to study the impact between media imageries and its audience’sRead MoreInequalities Has Been Around For Many Years; From Slaves,1018 Words   |  5 Pagesmovement was able to transform the role of the traditional woman. Woman were just thought as stay at home mom, who would just take care of their kids, cook, and clean. Once the feminist movement started to gain momentum and cause woman to believe they could be a mother and also have a steady career. In the book, Women’s Voices Feminist Visions: Classic and Contemporary Readings by Susan M. Shaw and Janet Lee, state that women’s and gender studies â€Å"is an interdisciplinaryRead MoreWomen s Social Issues And Concerns1292 Words   |  6 Pagesrelationships. Poverty is the root of almost all America’s social issues and concerns. It is prominent to the factors of education, social development, and the economic well beings as adults. Poverty contributes to the inequalities of race, language, culture and place in the United States. Studies shows that over 43 million people in the United States have lived with incomes below the poverty level. It represents 14.3 percent of the U.S. population and it known as the highest rate since 1994. More thanRead MorePurnell Model For Cultural Competence1026 Words   |  5 Pageseducation and practice. In 1989, when he took nursing students to a community hospital that was not accustomed to having students. Soon after the clinical experience began, it was obvious that the students and staff need additional knowledge concerning culture. The students primarily came from middle and upper middle class white families which most of the patients and staff came from lower socioeconomic backgrounds or with their heritage from Appalachia. Eventually, over the next few years the organizingRead MoreHow Societ Influences Gender Identity3802 Words   |  16 Pagessociety attempts to communicate the gender norms to children and adolescents through various mechanisms. Acculturated gender roles have a significant influence on the way parents rear children, which impacts the way the children view themselves. A conflict between the external societal role assigned to an adolescent based on biological gender and the internal gender identity formed by the adolescent can have negative consequences for psychological health. Gender identity involves the fundamental senseRead MoreMarriage : What Is It Good For?1156 Words   |  5 PagesMaiesha Azmi Professor Edwards Soci 2301-76426 30 July 2014 Marriage--What is it Good For? This article gives us an insight on the different factors that play a role when selecting a mate. It states how Prince William chose Catherine Middleton who even though was not from a royal family, because they went to the same university where they dated for a long time, he chose to marry her and she went on to become the first Queen with a university degree, showing that their union was of equals. We readRead MoreEssay about Eating Disorders: A Feminist Issue1575 Words   |  7 Pageshave the same understanding of eating disorders. There are many different theories that are prevalent in feminist literature today. This web page will explore some of the different feminist perspectives about the cause of eating disorders in our culture. Power Control and obedience In her book Unbearable Weight, Susan Bordo (1993) makes the argument that the fear of womens fat is actually a fear of womens power. Thus, as women gain power in society, their bodies dwindle and suffer. She

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Corporate Social Responsibilities ( Csr ) And...

Presentation Deliberating with the rules given in the inquiries, the entire task worries about the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) and maintainability. As it is specified in the inquiries we ll be discussing the CSR and maintainability. The goals of each business while building up are to make the financial conditions more grounded and to last nature for future era. Performing amid its normal exercises, it is having negative effect in nature. In the event that these sorts of exercises are not lessened then it will keep on effecting the earth. CSR worries about the obligations of the corporates towards the general public. Manageability is indispensable to how the corporate work together, and they keep on taking a stab at creative†¦show more content†¦So the partnership officials are capable of the general public not the entire business. The Corporate Executive drove the business. They have the principle obligations towards their managers to make the most benefit by performing best exercises for the business. Then the Corporate Executive, as a man may have his own social obligation, which implies he doesn t generally need to take after of his proprietors. On the off chance that the corporative official s moral qualities are not quite the same as the business, he may consider his own advantage as opposed to for the business. Along these lines, the stockholders, clients, or representatives ought to have the capacity to pick how they wish to spend their cash in the business. It is then seen that the corporate official is going about as an open worker, as opposed to an operators of the partnership. This can prompt a loss of both clients and workers if the corporate official s activities diminish corporate benefit and the cost of its stock. Friedman accepts, in a free society, there is one and one and only social obligation of business—to utilize its assets and take part in exercises intended to expand its benefits insofar as it stays inside of the diversion s standards, which is to say, participate

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Alice Munros Boys and Girls Essay Example For Students

Alice Munros Boys and Girls Essay Alice Munros Boys and GirlsAlice Munros short story, Boys and Girls, has a very interestingdetail written into it. The narrators brother is named Laird, which wascarefully chosen by the author. Laird is a synonym for lord, which plays aimportant role in a story where a young girl has societys unwritten rulesforced upon her. At the time of the story, society did not consider men andwomen equal.The name symbolized how the male child was superior in theparents eyes and in general.Along with that, the name also symbolizes thedifference between the sexes when this story took place. We will write a custom essay on Alice Munros Boys and Girls specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The time when this story took place was a time when men and women werenot equal. Mothers had traditional roles, which usually left them in the house,while men also had their roles, outside of the house. The male was the dominantfigure in the house, while the woman had to be subservient. It was an off thing to see my mother down at the barn. She did notoften come out of the house unless it was to do something hang out the wash ordig potatoes in the garden. She looked out of place, with her bare lumpy legs,not touched by the sun, her apron still on and damp across the stomach from thesupper dishes.1The narrator had problems coming to terms with the role in life that shewas expected to lead. She wanted to work outside with her father doing the workthat she deemed important. The mother tried to get the narrator to work insidedoing work deemed appropriate for a lady, however it was not something sheenjoyed. I hated the hot dark kitchen in the summer (p. 530).The narratorwas not considered of any consequential help to her father, simply because shewas female. Could of fooled me, said the salesman. I thought it was only a girl(p. 529). Even though the narrator could do more work than her younger brother,she was still under appreciated.Wait till Laird gets a little bigger, thenyoull have a real help (p. 530).Laird, on the other hand, was able to goout and do the things that he enjoyed. When Flora, the familys horse, runsaway Laird is invited to join the father and his assistant to re-capture thehorse, while the narrator must stay at home. When the narrator is reminiscing of the past, she recalls a time whenshe lured Laird up to the top of the barn. The whole purpose of this idea wasto get Laird in trouble. However, when her parents come and remove Laird fromdanger, they are actually mad at her, instead of Laird.This shows how theparents were more concerned with their son and that he could do no wrong. Thisreflects societys notion at the time, how men were always right. My father came, my mother came, my father went up the ladder talkingvery quietly and brought Laird down under his arm, at which my mother leanedagainst the ladder and began to cry. They said to me, Why werent you watchinghim? (p. 534)The grandmother is the best example of how women were thought of at thetime. She is from a time when there were even stricter rules of conduct forgirls. The narrators parents are more lackadaisical than the grandmother and alot less out-spoken. She voices what was taught to her when she was a child. At the time of the story, girls were expected to be dainty and quaint, while aman was expected to be the rough and tumble one. .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d , .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .postImageUrl , .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d , .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:hover , .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:visited , .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:active { border:0!important; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:active , .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud202743cd1e435cf77be7763e728e12d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: An Unexpected Gift EssayGirls dont slam doors like that. Girls keep their knees together when theysit down. And worse still, when I asked some questions, Thats none of girlsbusiness. I continued to slam the doors and sit as awkwardly as possible,thinking that by such measures I kept myself free. (p. 532)The narrator, however, did not keep her self free. Eventually, she began tochange and to become a stereotypical female. She began to conform to societysideas about women. Near the end of the story, Laird starts to realize his sex-determinedsuperiority. He explains to his father and mother how Flora escaped from theyard and also starts listening to his father almost exclusively. We shot old Flora, he said, and cut her up in fifty pieces. Well I dontwant to hear about it, my mother said. And dont come to my table like that.My father made him go and wash the blood off. (p. 536)Laird washes the blood off only after his father tells him to do so. This showsthe dominance of males in the society of the time. Laird may field his motherscomplains, but only does something about it once his father tells him to do so. This shows how his father is the authority figure, that his mother secondary tohis father. Even the daughter thinks lowly of the mother in comparison to thefather. It showed how little my mother knew about the way things really were(p. 531). Boys and Girls takes place at a time where there is no such thing asequality between the sexes. Men in this society are the dominant, authoritarianheads of the house-hold whose work is done outside the home. Women are expectedto look after the men and their work is done in the home. The narrator in Boysand Girls slowly becomes accustom with her role in society. The narrator andher brother symbolize the roles of males and females in that society. Thenarrator is forced into doing jobs that she doesnt enjoy doing, namely thatassociated with womens work at the time. Laird is allowed to do what hepleases. Laird is the lord, as a male he is deemed as the more important of thetwo, simply because of his sex, while the narrator cast into her womanly role,being of secondary importance. Bibliography1 Munro, Alice, Boys and Girls, Introduction to literature, eds. GillianThomas et al, third ed. (Toronto: Hardcourt Brace, 1995), p. 528 All subsequentreferences will be from this edition and will be cited in the text. Category: English

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Bpr at Ford Motor Company, India Essay Example

Bpr at Ford Motor Company, India Paper CHALLENGE: need for business process reengineering in Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company is the world’s second largest manufacturer of cars and trucks with products sold in more than 200 markets. The company employs nearly 400,000 people worldwide, and has grown to offer consumers eight of the world’s most recognizable automotive brands. CHALLENGE With inherent large-scale growth issues, more demanding customers, and mounting cost pressures, Ford needed to transform from a linear, top-down bureaucratic business model to an Internet ready, nimble organization that engages and integrates customers, suppliers, and employees. SOLUTION Working with Cisco, Ford integrated and leveraged their supplier base by designing Covisint, an end-to-end infrastructure that enables an online, centralized marketplace connecting the automotive industry supply chain. Ford also enhanced the customer buying experience through redesigned and more user friendly Web sites. RESULTS Ford is enjoying an increase in customer satisfaction, sees huge revenue opportunities for developing and retaining loyal product advocates, and has taken both complexity and cost out of the supply chain. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING Business process reengineering (BPR) is a management approach aiming at improvements by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of the processes that exist within and across organizations. The key to BPR is for organizations to look at their business processes from a clean slate perspective and determine how they can best construct these processes to improve how they conduct business. Michael Hammer, the management expert who initiated the reengineering movement, defines reengineering as â€Å"the fundamental rethinking and redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. It uses many of the tools just discussed to achieve these goals. It is a redesign and reorganization of business activities that results from questioning the status quo. It seeks to fulfill specific objectives and can lead to breakthrough improvement. We will write a custom essay sample on Bpr at Ford Motor Company, India specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Bpr at Ford Motor Company, India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Bpr at Ford Motor Company, India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It is often associated with significant cultural and technological changes. Methodology of reengineering 1. Envision new processes 1. Secure management support 2. Identify reengineering opportunities 3. Identify enabling technologies 4. Align with corporate strategy 2. Initiating change 1. Set up reengineering team 2. Outline performance goals 3. Process diagnosis 1. Describe existing processes 2. Uncover pathologies in existing processes 4. Process redesign 1. Develop alternative process scenarios 2. Develop new process design 3. Design HR architecture . Select IT platform 5. Develop overall blueprint and gather feedback 5. Reconstruction 1. Develop/install IT solution 2. Establish process changes 6. Process monitoring 1. Performance measurement, including time, quality, cost, IT performance 2. Link to continuous improvement In the early 1980s, when the American automotive industry was in a depression, Ford’s top management put accounts payable- along with many other departme nts- under the microscope in search of ways to cut costs. Accounts payable in North America alone employed more than 500 people. Ford was enthusiastic about its plan to tighten accounts payable- until it looked at Mazda. While Ford was aspiring to a 400-person department, Mazda’s accounts payable organization consisted of a total of 5 people. The difference in absolute numbers was astounding, and even after adjusting for Mazda’s smaller size, Ford figured that its accounts payable organization was five times the size it should be. The Ford team knew better than to attribute the discrepancy to calisthenics, company songs, or low interest rates. THE EXISTING SYSTEM First, managers analyzed the existing system. When Ford’s purchasing department wrote a purchasers order, it sent a copy of the receiving document to accounts payable. Meanwhile, the vendor sent an invoice to accounts payable. It was up to accounts payable, then, to match the purchase order against the receiving document and the invoice. If they matched, the department issued payment. The department spent most of its time on mismatches, instances where the purchase order, receiving document, and invoice disagreed. In these cases, an accounts payable clerk would investigate the discrepancy, hold up payment, generate document, and all in gum up the works. THE PROCESS FLOW CHART It was slow and cumbersome. More than 500 accounts payable clerks matched purchase orders, receiving documents and invoices and then issued payment. Mismatches were common. SYSTEM DRAWBACKS: The drawback in this system was that ford’s accounts payable organization was performed by so many people. The department spent most of its time on mismatches, instances where the purchase order, receiving document, and invoice disagreed. In these cases, an accounts payable clerk would investigate the discrepancy, hold up payment, generate document, and all in gum up the works. Its process was not efficient. SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENT The management thought that by rationalizing processes and installing new computer systems, it could reduce the head counts. One way to improve things might have been to help the accounts payable clerk investigate more efficiently, but a better choice was to prevent the mismatches in the first place. To this end, Ford instituted â€Å"invoiceless processing. † Now when the purchasing department initiates an order, it enters the information into an on-line database. It doesn’t send a copy of the purchase order to anyone. When the goods arrive at the receiving dock, the receiving clerk checks the database to see if they correspond to an outstanding purchase order. If so, he or she accepts them and enters the transaction into the computer system. (If receiving can’t find a database entry for the received goods, it simply returns the order. ) Under the old procedures, the accounting department had to match 14 data items between the receipt record, the purchase order, and the invoice before it could issue payment to the vendor. The new approach requires matching only three items- part number, unit of measure, and supplier code- between the purchase order and the receipt record. The matching is done automatically, and the computer prepares the check, which accounts payable sends to the vendor. There are no invoices to worry about since Ford has asked its vendors not to send them. Ford dint settle for the modest increases it first envisioned. It opted for radical change- and achieved improvement. FORD REENGINEERED THE PROCESS. NOW ITS FAST AND EFFICIENT The new process cuts head count in accounts payable by 75%, eliminates invoices and improves accuracy. Matching is computerized. CONCLUSION: Ford discovered that reengineering only the accounts payable department was futile. The appropriate focus of the effort was what might be called the goods acquisition process, which included purchasing and receiving as well as accounts payable. When Ford reengineering its payables, receiving clerks on the dock had to learn to use computer terminals to check shipments, and they had to make decisions about whether to accept the goods. Purchasing agents also had to assume new responsibilities-like making sure the purchase orders they entered into the databases had the correct information about where to send the check. Attitudes towards vendors also had to change: vendors could no longer be seen as adversaries; they had to become partners in a shared business process. Vendors too had to adjust. In many cases, invoices formed the basis of their accounting systems. At one ford supplier adapted by continuing to print invoices, but instead of sending them to Ford threw them away, reconciling cash received against invoices never sent.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Essay Sample on #8220;A Brief History of Zen#8221;

Essay Sample on #8220;A Brief History of Zen#8221; Zen (or â€Å"chan† in China and â€Å"dhyan† in India) is trendy now. It is seen in shops, magazines, songs, literature, meditation centers, and many other places. However, the real Zen, the one of history, has a long tradition. Zen is a type of Buddhism that started in India and traveled to China, across Asia, and ultimately became a global phenomenon. Its secular nature and simplicity has made it more accessible to the masses than many other spiritual practices. In this essay, the eras of Zen will be looked into: Proto-Chan, Early Chan, Middle Chan, Song-Dynasty Chan, Post-Classical Chan, and the Modern Era. Proto-Chan (c. 500-600) The beginning of Zen stems from the teachings of Bodhidharma, who was an Indian Buddhist monk. However, there is not much reliable historical evidence of his life, and mostly legends are relied upon. What is known is that Bodhidharma taught â€Å"dhyan,† or the quieting of the mind to reach a state of thoughtless awareness. Bodhidharma traveled to China on orders from his teacher, and his brand of Buddhism spread throughout northern China. Carrying the torch of Zen in China after Bodhidharma’s passing was Dazu Huike. He is considered the Second Patriarch of Chinese Chan (McRae, John R.). Early Chan (618–750) This period is famous for the founding of the first Chan institution in Chinese history by the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren and his student Yuquan Shenxiu. Also, this era featured a debate between the ideas of sudden or gradual enlightenment. The sixth patriarch, Dajian Huineng, focused on spontaneous nirvana. These differences in approaches formed various sects of Zen (Ray, Gary L.). Middle Chan (c. 750–1000) Many new schools of Zen developed during this period. The Hongzhou school of Mazu Daoyi came about, and concentrated on insight, the lack of positive statements, and on questions and answers between a master and student. Ultimately, this school promoted the idea that there is no real difference between ignorance and enlightenment, or the Buddha and an ordinary person. But later in this period, new traditions cropped up that became known as the Five Houses of Chan: the Codà ²ng school (Soto in Japan), the Là ­njà ¬ school (Rinzai in Japan), the Guiyang school (IgyÃ…  in Japan), the Fayan school, and the Yunmen school. Each school promoted varied teachings based on a certain master. A lot of the hallmarks of Zen were developed during this time, such as dialogues between masters and students, the drawing of circles, shouting, hitting, and other methods to prompt enlightenment (McRae, John R.). In addition, two important occurrences took place in Middle Chan. The Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall was created, and there was The Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution in 845. This had a strong detrimental effect on the propagation of Zen, but the Hongzhou school stayed intact (Takeuchi, Yoshinori, and Jan Van Bragt). Song-Dynasty Chan (c. 950–1300) You can say that Zen, or Chan, flowered in this period. Chan became the most popular Buddhist sect in China and made strong ties with the imperial government. Through the support of the government, the Linji school began to be the most renowned form of Chan. Also, the Linji school absorbed the other schools of Zen, except the Caodong school. These two schools did their best to win the favor of the imperial government (Wang, Youru). Furthermore, Chan started to embrace teachings from Pure Land Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. This integration had effects on the aforementioned religions as well, as Zen started to influence them. Also, classic koan collections were written during the Song Dynasty, and Zen took hold in Japan and Korea (Wang, Youru). Post-Classical Chan (1368–1912) Chan became so widespread that about every monk in China was either from the Linji school or the Caodong school. However, as time went on, the syncretism of Zen and Pure Land Buddhism increased, with most temples practicing both. This prompted some people like Yunqi Zhuhong (1535-1615) and Daguan Zhenke (1543-1603) to carve out the distinction between Zen and other types of Buddhism through the study of scriptures and writing new texts. In addition, transitioning from the Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, monks focused on reviving the practices of shouting and beating to prompt enlightenment and published influential works on the transmission of knowledge across all the schools of Zen (Wang, Youru). Modern Era Though there was a decline in the popularity of Zen in the Qing Dynasty, the 19th and 20th centuries saw a fresh revival of the practice. Chan started to take on social issues like poverty and injustice, and even got involved in politics. Modern scholarship coupled with science was encouraged, and a deep study of the history of Zen began. It was also at this time that Zen reached the West, and despite it being repressed in the 1960s in China, it flourished in America and other major western nations. In the 1970s, China once again embraced Zen, and throughout the decades since, it has only grown in popularity as a practice, media phenomenon, and way of life (Wang, Youru). In summary, Zen began from the teachings of a Buddhist monk from India named Bodhidharma. He spread his teachings around China, and he was succeeded by several capable disciples. Through hundreds of years of tradition, Zen has become a mainstay sect of Buddhism through the nature of its mainly secular teachings, its connection with the Chinese imperial court, and its many revivals through literature and opening of new schools. Once Zen became the main spiritual practice of China during the Ming Dynasty, its influence was strongly felt in other religions and in political power. Chan also proved popular not only in Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries, but also in America and many other western countries. Now Zen is so popular that it is difficult to separate the practice from the cultural phenomenon. McRae, John R. Seeing through Zen: Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism. University of California Press, 2005. Ray, Gary L. The Northern Chan School And Sudden Versus Gradual Enlightenment Debates In China And Tibet, Institute Of Buddhist Studies Berkeley. Takeuchi, Yoshinori, and Jan Van Bragt. Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese. Crossroad, 1994. Wang, Youru. Historical Dictionary of Chan Buddhism. Rowman Littlefield, 2017.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Snowstorm Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Snowstorm Case Study - Essay Example Every airport should have safety as the priority when conducting its operations. An important first step to doing this is by ensuring that all equipment that is to be used in snow and ice control are calibrated properly, updated, and certified as required at all time. The supervisor, mechanics, and equipment operators should inspect equipment at all times to ensure that the airport is in a position to deal with a snowstorm (Zhang, Debendra,and Rorik, 13). The supervisor needs to ensure that the required automotive fluids, parts used for replacement, and equipment are inventoried and stocked as is required as a pre-emptive move towards preventing a crisis in the event of a snowstorm. It is important to ensure that personnel notification procedures are up to date at all times. The supervisor should, therefore, review the call-out procedures for personnel preceding winter. The supervisor can do this by overseeing the updating of the cell phone numbers and other contacts of personnel involved in snow and ice control. Weather forecasting is of utmost importance to an airport because it is invaluable when it comes to scheduling of flights and the snow crew. The supervisor should, therefore, ensure that the airport contracts aviation weather services so that it is prepared in case of a snowstorm. In addition to contracted forecasting services, the airport should make use of the local weather service forecast and the runway surface condition sensor system. Forecasting information from these avenues is useful in scheduling of on-duty and off-duty snow crew personnel. The forecasting information can also be used for preparation of necessary equipment in snow and ice control procedures and the restocking of anti-icing or deicing materials. One way to ensure that snow and ice do not accumulate and cause a nuisance in the airport is by sweeping or plowing accumulations of the runway. The